2011年考研英语阅读理解part a text 1

①the decision of the new york philharmonic to hire alan gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. ②for the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. ③“hooray! at last!” wrote anthony tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.

①one of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that gilbert is comparatively little known. ②even tommasini, who had advocated gilbert’s appointment in the times, calls him“an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” ③as a deion of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like gustav mahler and pierre boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some times readers as faint praise.

①for my part, i have no idea whether gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. ②to be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit avery fisher hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. ③all i have to do is to go to my cd shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded

music from itunes.

①devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. ②for the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. ③these recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. ④the widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert.

①one possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. ②gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: alex ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” ③but what will be the nature of that difference? ④merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. ⑤if gilbert and the philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between america’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hopes to attract.

21. we learn from paragraph 1 that gilbert’s appointment has __________.

[a] incurred criticism [b] raised suspicion

[c] received acclaim [d] aroused curiosity

22. tommasini regards gilbert as an artist who is __________.

[a] influential [b] modest

[c] respectable [d] talented

23. the author believes that the devoted concertgoers __________.

[a] ignore the expenses of live performances

[b] reject most kinds of recorded performances

[c] exaggerate the variety of live performances

[d] overestimate the value of live performances

24. according to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?

[a] they are often inferior to live concerts in quality.

[b] they are easily accessible to the general public.

[c] they help improve the quality of music.

[d] they have only covered masterpieces.

25. regarding gilbert’s role in revitalizing the philharmonic, the author feels __________.

[a] doubtful [b] enthusiastic

[c] confident [d] puzzled


21. c 22. b 23. d 24. b 25. a


21. c

[解题思路] 题干首先给出了限定词paragraph 1,即答案信息来源于第一段。题干关键词gilbert’s appointment出现在该段句①的末尾处,接着句②指出大众对gilbert的任命的反应是积极的、赞许的(favorable),对比选项,[c]项表达了此意,acclaim即是文中favorable的同义替换。

[干扰排除] 选项[a]是利用首段句③末尾的critic设置的干扰项,此处critic的含义为“评论家”,用来说明tommasini的身份,其言论“好啊!终于有结果啦!(hooray! at last!)”并不是表达批评的意思,所以排除选项[a]。选项[b]在文中没有任何对应信息,命题者利用常识设置这一干扰项,因为通常人们会对新上任者的能力持怀疑态度。所以考生需记住,通过常识推出的信息未必就是答案,答案必须由原文推导而出。选项[d]是本题最大的干扰项,该项是利用第二段首句中the appointment came as such a surprise(这个任命使人们惊讶)设置的干扰,但题干限定的paragraph 1中却没有任何信息能推出此任命“引发了好奇”,所以此选项错误。

22. b

[解题思路] tommasini对gilbert的个人评价出现在文中第二段句②,tommasini 认为gilbert是位谦逊的音乐家(an unpretentious musician),在他身上没有那种令人生畏的指挥家的神态(with no air of the formidable conductor),故选项[b]正确,modest即是unpretentious的同义替换。但由于很多考生不认识unpretentious和formidable,故此题的难度比较大。不过此题还可以利用句①和句②的语意关系推断出答案。本段句①提出,很多人对此任命感到意外的原因之一是gilbert相对而言并不是很有名(comparatively little known),接着句②就具体给出了tommasini对gilbert的评价an unpretentious musician,显然句②是对句①的补充说明,对比选项,只有选项[b]“谦逊的”才能使得句②对句①构成语意上的补充。

[干扰排除] 全文只在第一、二段出现了tommasini,第一段中tommasini的话语显然不是对gilbert的个人评价,只是对任命结果最后敲定表示高兴。第二段是tommasini对gilbert的评价,通过上面的解题思路分析可知,tommasini的评价语言中没有信息表示gilbert是 “有影响力的”、“有才能的”,故选项[a]和[d]错误。虽然tommasini认为gilbert是“谦逊的”、“不令人生畏的”,但是tommasini并没有进而说gilbert就是“可敬的”,所以选项[c]是过度推测,应排除。

23. d

[解题思路] 根据题干关键词devoted concertgoers定位到文中第四段句①,该句指出那些忠实的音乐会观众会反驳说唱片远不能代替现场演出,但是他们没有看到问题的实质。文章接着给出了解释,句②指出了时下古典音乐现场音乐会的劣势:竞争对手众多(与剧院、舞蹈队、演出公司和博物馆竞争,与优质唱片竞争)。句③指出了唱片的优势:便宜、容易获得、艺术品质高于现场音乐会、能够随时随地欣赏。因此句④得出“唱片的普及已经给古典音乐演奏会带来了危机”这一结论。所以devoted concertgoers是忽略了如今现场音乐会的劣势和唱片的优势,对比选项,只有选项[d]合乎此意,“高估了现场演出的价值”就相当于“忽略了如今现场演出的劣势”。

[干扰排除] 选项[a]是利用第四段句②中 money of the art-loving public设置的干扰项,文章这里是指艺术爱好者的钱,并不是指现场演出的费用,错选此项的考生很多是受该句信息及常识(现场演出的成本比较高)的干扰。选项[b]无中生有,文中没有具体说明忠实的音乐会观众是否会抵制大部分的唱片。选项[c]是利用第三段句②中he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions设置的干扰项,该句是作者在表达自己的观点:gilbert能表演出很多有趣的乐章,至于devoted concertgoers是否夸大了现场演出的种类,文中并没有给出说明。

24. b

[解题思路] 文中第四段句③具体说明了recordings的情况,该句指出唱片便宜(cheap),随处可买(available everywhere),并且在艺术品质上通常要比现在的现场音乐会高很多,听众也能随意选择享受唱片的时间和地点。对比选项,选项[b]正确,easily accessible to the general public即文中available everywhere的同义表述。

[干扰排除] 选项[a]可借由第四段句③中的these recordings…very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances排除,文中指出唱片的艺术品质往往是高于现场演出的,故此项错误。选项[c]属于过度推测,该段句③只是将唱片的艺术品质和现场演出的艺术品质进行比较,至于唱片对于音乐质量的作用,文中没有说明。选项[d]是利用该段句②中the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century设置的干扰,文中此处是说,现场音乐会要与那些收录了20世纪伟大的古典音乐大师作品的唱片进行竞争,但并不能由此推断出所有唱片只收录杰出的作品,故排除此项。

25. a

[解题思路] 文中第四段末句指出唱片的普及给现场演出带来了危机(brought about a crisis),接着第五段句①、②指出古典音乐演奏者的一个可行的措施是排练出唱片上目前还没有的新曲目。而gilbert也的确对新音乐很有兴趣,因此评论家alex ross认为gilbert能够把爱乐乐团变成“一个完全不同、更有活力的组织”。但句③作者用but引出了自己的观点:这种不同有什么本质意义呢?紧接着作者在句④、⑤指出,仅仅扩大乐团的曲目是不够的(will not be enough),乐团要想取得成功,就必须首先改变乐团与其想吸引的新观众之间的关系。可见作者对于gilbert能否重振爱乐乐团持怀疑态度,故选项[a]正确。

[干扰排除] 选项[c]表达的是评论家alex ross对gilbert的态度,不是作者的观点,故排除。选项[b]和[d]无从得知,在gilbert振兴爱乐乐团这件事上,作者未表达出有多么热心或者困惑,故排除。



philharmonic /7filb:5mcnik/ n [c] 爱乐乐团:the berlin philharmonic 柏林爱乐乐团

be the talk of sth (informal)成为大家的谈资;为人们所津津乐道:his collection is the talk of the milan fashion shows. 他的时装系列成为米兰时装展的热门话题。

for the most part通常;多半:the older members, for the most part, shun him. 年长的会员通常会避开他。

favorable /5feiverebl/ adj表示同意的;表扬的:a favorable report 赞同的报告

to say the least至少可以说;最起码:i found the flight rather uncomfortable, to say the least. 至少可以这么说,我觉得这次飞行特别不舒服。

hooray /hu5rei/(=hurrah)interj (用于表示喜悦、赞成)好哇,好;万岁:hooray! she’s here at last! 好呀!她终于来了!

sober-sided adj 严肃的;正式的:a play with a sober-sided social message具有严肃的社会意义的戏剧

critic /5kritik/ n [c] (尤指职业)评论家:critics described the paintings as worthless rubbish. 评论家把那些画形容为一文不值的垃圾。


come /kqm/ v [i] 发生;出现:her death came as a terrible shock to us. 她的死使我们极为震惊。

comparatively /kem5paretivli/ adv比较地:infla-tion was comparatively low. 通货膨胀率相对较低。

advocate /5advekeit/ v [t] 拥护;支持:these policies have been widely advocated. 这些政策已得到广泛的拥护。

unpretentious /7qnpri5tenfes/ adj不炫耀的;谦逊的:he is a very famous singer but he is completely unpretentious. 他是位很有名的歌唱家,但他非常谦逊。

with no/an air of sth没有/有……的神态:he leaned towards melissa with an air of great confidentiality. 他向梅利莎凑过身去,显出很亲密的样子。

formidable /5fr:midebl/ adj 可怕的;引起恐惧或不安的:a very formidable opponent 非常可怕的对手

hitherto /7hite5tu:/ adv 迄今;至今:the weather, which had hitherto been sunny and mild, suddenly turned cold. 迄今一直晴朗温暖的天气突然变冷了。

strike sb as sth… 给人……的印象:the plan strikes me as ridiculous. 我觉得这个计划荒谬可笑。


to be sure 确实;当然:he is intelligent, to be sure, but he’s also very lazy. 他的确聪明,可是也很懒惰。

composition /7kcmpe5zifn/ n [c] 作品(如乐曲、诗或书):“swan lake” is one of tchaikovsky’s best-known compositions. 《天鹅湖》是柴可夫斯基最著名的作品之一。

orchestral /r:5kestrel/ adj 管弦乐团的:an orchestral concert 管弦乐演奏会

boot up启动(电脑):the menu will be ready as soon as you boot up your computer. 启动电脑,菜单就出现了。

download /7daun5leud/ v [i,t] 下载:you can download this software for free. 你可以免费下载这个软件。


concertgoer /5krnset7geue/ n [c] 出席音乐会(尤指古典音乐会)的人

recording /ri5kr:din/ n [c] (录制的)音像;录音:the band’s latest recording 乐队的最新唱片

substitute for sth / sb ……的代替者;……的代替物:soya milk is used as a substitute for dairy milk. 豆浆被用作牛奶的替代品。

live /laiv/ adj (音乐表演)现场的:there is traditional live music played most nights. 大多数夜晚都有现场音乐表演。

troupe /tru:p/ n [c] 表演团;(巡回)演出团:a dance/circus troupe 舞蹈团/马戏团

bring about 引发;导致:she brought about a revolution in psychoanalysis. 她引发了心理分析领域的一场革命。

institution /7insti5tju:fn/ n [c] 惯例;习惯做法:drinking tea at 4 pm is a popular british institution. 下午4点钟吃茶点是英国人很流行的习惯。


markedly /5mb:kidli/ adv清楚地;显著地:he was markedly more pleasant than before. 他明显比以前和气多了。

vibrant /5vaibrent/ adj充满活力的;活跃的:a vibrant cosmopolitan city一座充满活力的国际大都市

repertoire /5repetwb:(r)/ n [c] 定期演出的全部节目;经常演出的全部节目:the mainstream concert repertoire 主流音乐会经常演出的全部节目


criticism /5kritisizem/ n [c, u] 批评;批判;指责:he ignored the criticisms of his friends. 他无视朋友的批评。

suspicion /se5spifn/ n[c, u] 怀疑:her behavior aroused no suspicion. 她的举动没有引起怀疑。

acclaim /e5kleim/ n [u] 称道;赞誉:she has won acclaim for her commitment to democracy. 她因致力于民主而获得称赞。

influential /7influ5enfl/ adj 有影响的;有势力的:her work is influential in feminist psychology. 她的作品在女性心理学领域很具影响力。

modest /5mcdist/ adj 谦虚的;谦恭的:be modest about one’s achievements 对自己的成就很谦虚

exaggerate /ig5zadvereit/ v [i ,t] 夸大;言过其实:you are exaggerating the difficulties. 你把困难夸大了。

overestimate /7euver5estimeit/ v [t] 过高估计(某事物):we overestimated the cost by about 2 per cent. 我们高估了大约2% 的费用。

inferior to sb / sth 比……差:his later work was vastly inferior to his early work. 他后期的作品大不如前。

accessible /ek5sesebl/ adj 易得到的;易使用的:making learning opportunities more accessible to adults 使成人有更多的学习机会

masterpiece /5mb:ste7pi:s/ n [c] 杰作:it’s one of the greatest masterpieces of western art. 这是西方艺术最伟大的杰作之一。

revitalize /ri:5vaitelaiz/ v [t] 使(某事物)恢复生机;使复兴:revitalize the industry, economy and education 振兴工业、经济和教育

enthusiastic /in7wju:zi5astik/ adj 感兴趣的;热心的:for a while, we were enthusiastic about the idea. 我们一度对这个想法很感兴趣。


① the decisionof the new york philharmonicto hire alan gilbert as its next music

主语 后置定语 后置定语

directorhas beenthe talk of the classical-music worldever since the sudden

谓语 表语 时间状语

announcement of his appointment in 2009.


本句的主干是the decision…has been the talk…。主语是the decision,其后的介词结构of the new york philharmonic和动词不定式to hire alan gilbert as its next music director作其后置定语,对其进行解释说明,其中hire…as…意为“聘请……担任……”。由于该句的时间状语是由ever since引导的,故句子的谓语动词用现在完成时态。

② as a deion of the next music director of an orchestrathat has hitherto been

状语 定语从句

led by musicians like gustav mahler and pierre boulez,thatseems likely to have

定语从句 主语 谓语

struckat leastsome times readersas faint praise.

状语 宾语 宾语补足语

本句的主干是…that seems likely to have struck…readers as faint praise。主语that是用来指代文中上句tommasini对gilbert的评价(“an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him”)。句首是as引导的状语,在该状语中包含一个that引导的定语从句,修饰说明先行词orchestra,该定语从句是被动语态,其中like gustav mahler and pierre boulez举例说明musicians。主句中strike sb as sth意为“给某人某种印象”,at least在这里作状语,表示程度。

③ to be sure, heperformsan impressive variety of interesting compositions,

插入语 主语1 谓语1 宾语1

butitisnot necessaryfor meto visit avery fisher hall, or

连词 形式主语 谓语2 表语 状语 真正的主语

anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music.


本句由but连接的两个分句组成,第一个分句中,句首to be sure 为插入语。不定式作插入语的结构在英语中有很多,如:to be honest (说实话),to be frank(坦白地说),它们在句中起强调作用。第二个分句中,it为形式主语,真正的主语是不定式复合结构to visit avery fisher hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music。其中to hear interesting orchestral music作visit的目的状语。

④ devoted concertgoerswho reply that recordings are no substitute for live

主语 定语从句

performanceare missingthe point.

谓语 宾语

本句的主干是devoted concertgoers…are missing the point。devoted concertgoers后接由who引导的定语从句对其进行修饰,在该从句中又包含了that引导的宾语从句recordings are no substitute for live performance。另外,考生需掌握常用搭配结构be substitute for。

⑤ for the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical

目的状语 主语

instrumentalistsmust competenot only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater

谓语 状语1

companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great


classical musicians of the 20th century.


本句的主干是…classical instrumentalists must compete…。句首for引导的介词结构作为句子的目的状语,表示“为了……”。compete后是状语,说明与主语竞争的对象,由not only…but also…连接。状语2中,介词结构of the great classical musicians of the 20th century是修饰the recorded performances的后置定语。

⑥ gilbert’s own interest in new musichas been widely noted: alex ross,

主语 谓语 主语

a classical-music critic, has describedhimas a man who is capable of turning the

同位语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语

philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.”


本句的主干是 …interest…has been…noted,为被动语态。冒号后的部分是对前面主句的举例说明,该部分主干结构是alex ross…has described him as a man…,主语alex ross后是对其进行解释说明的同位语,宾语him后接宾语补足语as a man…,该宾语补足语中,who引导的定语从句限定修饰man,定语从句中的be capable of意为“有能力的;能胜任的”,turn…into… 意为“把……变成……”。













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